Renal failure is a medical condition where the normal functionality of the kidneys are lost suddenly. In this condition, the kidneys are incapable of removing waste and concentrating urine thereby leading to the loss of electrolytes from the body. This leads to accumulation of toxins and waste products in the blood. Glomerular filtration rate decreases when the kidneys fail.
There are three forms of renal failure namely acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, and acute-on-chronic renal failure.
Acute renal failure occurs where there is a sudden interruption to the blood flow thereby leading to rapid loss of kidney function. The most common causes of acute renal failure are trauma, complications from surgery such as heart bypass surgery, injuries, drug overdoses, accidental overload such as the onset of crush syndrome, chemical overload of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, bladder tumor, renal calculi, acute glomerulonephritis, acute tubular injury, enlarged prostate, fluid depletion, sun stroke, cardiac failure, septic infections, and hemorrhage.
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